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蝶戀花

Butterflies Love Flowers
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花鳥畫一詞,大抵始於唐代張彥遠《歷代名畫記》之六門分類,並且於宋代成熟。而在西洋,花鳥畫可以歸類於「靜物畫」,大約始於16世紀,並於17世紀才到達普及。無論是花鳥畫或是靜物畫,二者之相通性皆為「觀察」的練習;然而在練習之後,到達爐火純青之地步,便為大家之作。二呆藝館所收藏趙同和的作品中,有關花鳥及靜物題材約有200多件,本次展覽選出有關「花」及「蝴蝶」之作品,以表現趙同和融合中、西藝術的精神。

Bird-and-flower paintings generally originated from the six categories of paintings in found in Records of Famous Painters of Successive Dynasties by Zhang Yan-yuan in the Tang Dynasty and came to maturity in the Song Dynasty. In Western art, Bird-and-Flower Painting is classified as still-life painting that began in about the 16th century and prevailed during the 17th century. No matter whether it is called Bird-and-Flower Painting or still-life painting, this kind of painting focuses on the practice of observation. The practice will produce a masterpiece when it is perfectly refined. Among Zhao Tong-he’s works collected by Erdai Art Hall, more than 200 of the works are depictions of birds, flowers, and still lives. The works concerning “flowers” and “butterflies” selected in this exhibition will display Zhao Tong-he’s spirit of integrating Chinese and Western art.

「蝶戀花」,語出南朝梁簡文帝《東飛伯勞歌》之一:「翻階蛺蝶戀花情, 容華飛燕相逢迎」。詞人多以纏綿悱惻之情來填詞牌〈鵲踏枝〉,而宋代的晏殊將詞牌〈鵲踏枝〉又名為〈蝶戀花〉,突顯這首詞的繾綣浪漫。詞人填詞,多以借物抒懷之文學手法,此謂「移情」,也是中國「花鳥畫」及西洋「靜物畫」的深層內涵。

The term “butterflies love flowers” derives from Song of the Shrike Flying East I by Liang Jianwendi of the Southern Dynasties: “The butterfly flies over to meet its love, the flower; swallows also fly by to greet it.” The poet composed the poem “The Magpie on a Branch” to be full of sentimentality. Yan Shu of the Song Dynasty named the poem “The Magpie on a Branch” as “The Butterfly Loves the Flower,” showing how romantic this poem is. Poets often express their feelings through the metaphors of other objects. This kind of “transference” is also a profound connotation found in Chinese Bird-and-Flower Painting and Western still-life painting.

中國的花鳥畫指的是以筆墨和宣紙作為工具,描繪主題「花」、「鳥」、「瓜果」、「蟲」、「魚」、「禽獸」等動植物,因此花鳥畫的主題,不一定是房間裡的靜物,大多時候是空間中的瞬間。

Chinese Bird-and-Flower Painting refers to paintings depicting “flowers,” “birds,” “fruits,” “insects,” “fish,” and other animals and plants with ink and xuan paper. Therefore, bird-and-flower paintings do not necessarily focus on the still life of a room. Instead, they mostly depict a moment in a space.

中國畫史上有關花鳥畫家的記載可見於南朝謝赫的《古畫品錄》,然而這些記載作品目前早已不傳。唐代以前,畫家多以人物畫為主,兼畫其他題材;至唐代,因中國統一及對外的交流,促使中國藝術領域隨之擴大,花鳥畫便於此時興起。

In the history of Chinese paintings, a record of bird-and-flower painters can be seen in Xie He’s The Record of the Classification of Old Painters in the Southern Dynasties. However, the works recorded in the book have long been lost. Before the Tang Dynasty, painters mostly focused on figure painting along with other topics. Since the Tang Dynasty, due to the centralization of China and communication with other countries, the realm of Chinese art was expanded. Bird-and-flower painting has been on the rise since that time.
 
宋代理學發達,講求「外師造化、中得心源」,也影響了繪畫內涵。至宋徽宗時,不僅擴充畫院規模,亦把「以詩取士」裁定進入畫院的標準,他多以古人詩句作為畫題,如「踏花歸去馬蹄香」、「蝴蝶夢中家萬里,杜鵑枝上月三更」…等,此種藉由繪畫表現詩句,重視個人對自然的真實感受,也是宋代花鳥畫盛行的原因。

With the popularity of Neo-Confucianism in the Song Dynasty, the idea “learning from the nature and expressing one’s mind” also influenced painting. During the period or rule under Emperor Huizong in the Song Dynasty, not only was the painting academy expanded, but “talent selection by poems” was also included in the standards for admission to the painting academy. Emperor Huizong often adopted old poems as the topics of paintings, such as “The Fragrance after Galloping on Flowers,” “In a dream of butterflies my home is far away; I cry with the cuckoo as the moon rises at midnight,” etc. The paintings depicting poems emphasize one’s genuine feelings toward nature. That’s why Bird-and-Flower Painting was prevalent during the Song Dynasty.

元代重武輕文,文人乃將精力移轉於繪畫上,借以抒懷心中鬱悶;元朝中葉後,畫水墨及沒骨的人數逐漸增加,成為中國水墨花卉的黃金時代。此時,四君子畫與花卉畫分道揚鑣:所謂四君子指的是梅、蘭、竹、菊等植物,是士大夫自我期許的自然類標竿;另一方面,因四君子用筆簡單易學,入元以後隨著局勢發展便更加發達,獨立成為一門繪畫主題。

In the Yuan Dynasty, people emphasized military training at the expense of the humanities. Literati then expressed their frustration through paintings. In the middle of the Yuan Dynasty, the number of painters doing ink paintings and boneless paintings (Mogu) gradually increased. The Yuan Dynasty thus became a golden age for Chinese ink flower paintings. During this period, the Four Gentlemen Paintings, indicating the four plants that represented the scholar-officials’ self-expectations, namely the plum blossom, orchid, bamboo, and chrysanthemum, are distinguished from flower paintings. On the other hand, because Four Gentlemen Painting is simpler, since the Yuan Dynasty, it has become its own independent painting theme.

以狹義範圍定義靜物畫,指的是一幅畫作上有關花卉、蔬果、器皿、書冊、食物等主題。「靜物」在西方繪畫上多作為宗教畫或是肖像畫的點綴,但從17世紀開始,靜物畫成為獨立的創作主題,而荷蘭可說是靜物畫發展的原鄉。

Narrowly defined, still-life painting refers to a painting depicting flowers, fruits, vegetables, utensils, books, food, etc. Originally, “still life” served as decoration for religious paintings or portraits in Western paintings, but since the 17th century, still-life painting has become an independent topic. The Netherlands can be regarded as the homeland for the development of still-life painting.

有學者指出靜物畫在荷蘭蓬勃發展的原因,可能與宗教改革息息相關,因為財富不再流向教會,因此人們將重心把放在自家空間,而繪畫等同於空間裡傢俱,功能性不再是單純的宣教或審美用途,更具有「倫理」的態度:畫作成為平衡奢侈與節儉的象徵。

Some scholars indicate that the reason for the prospering development of still-life painting in the Netherlands might be closely related to the religious Reformation. Since money no longer flowed to the church, the focus of attention was shifted back to the home. Regarded as part of a home’s furniture, paintings then not only served evangelical or aesthetic purposes, but also presented “moral” principles: painting symbolized the balance between luxury and thrift.

又因為宗教改革,使得新教地區的畫家失去最大宗的經濟來源:為教堂裝飾,每位畫家都必須專精一種繪畫或是主題,如風俗畫、風景畫、肖像畫及靜物畫等,才能在藝術市場上占一席之地。

Because of the religious Reformation, painters in Protestant areas lost their financial mainstay: decorating churches. Each painter had to excel at a certain type of painting or topic such as genre paintings, landscapes, portraits and still life paintings in order to take a leading position in the art market.

從19世紀末的後印象主義開始,靜物畫進入了新的探索階段。塞尚在靜物畫創作中追求繪畫的形式語言美感,啟迪了西方現代藝術追求形式創新的新方向。

Since the beginning of Post-Impressionism at the end of 19th century, Still-Life Painting has entered a new exploratory phase. Paul Cézanne’s pursuit for linguistic beauty in the form of Still-Life Painting inspired modern Western art to seek innovation in forms.

中國花鳥畫,將動植物看成展現生機或是「道理」的表現題材,因此具有托物言志的思想情感,偏重於「善美」的原則大於「真」。西方的靜物畫,將動植物視為客觀存在的物品,畫家要表現的是真實性、立體感及空間感,透過色彩及光影,將理想中的美感具體化。

In Chinese Bird-and-Flower Painting, painters express their feelings and thinking through animals and plants, emphasizing “virtue” over “reality.” On the other hand, in Western Still-Life Painting, painters regard animals and plants as objective existence. They want to present authenticity and three dimensional space through colors, light, and shadows in order to concretize their ideal aesthetics.

「蝶戀花」特展中,可看到趙二呆的花鳥畫(靜物畫)展現多元的風格,包括東方的簡潔與禪意還有西洋的印象及抽象。

In the Exhibition “Butterflies Love Flowers,” we can perceive diverse styles of Zhao Erdai’s Bird-and-Flower Paintings (Still-Life Paintings), including simplicity and Zen as well as Impressionism and Abstract Expressionism.

  在欣賞二呆的作品時,可以先就畫面做第一層瞭解:畫面的佈局及形式,于還素談論二呆的藝術曾說:「畫面上訴說出來的,一株繁茂花朵的色與面會因熱情的肯定而分離,一株參天的古樹,線與韻律會為了壯觀的理由,按照歲序的節奏漫漶其清嫩的樣子;諸如此類,因而使我們認識趙二呆的地上植物,在一幅畫面上,產生不同的時序—以時間為單位的多重變化。」 (〈論趙二呆的畫〉,世界日報副刊,74年9月3日) ,二呆作品的線條、主題時序及形貌,帶有一種不明確感,這是經過簡化及內化的結果;第二層為繪畫的內容:本特展的主題,都是臺灣及澎湖常見的花卉及蝴蝶;而第三層的欣賞,則是主題對於畫家的意象,有部分是來自長久以來的圖像學象徵,另有一部分,是趙二呆移情的轉化。透過他的詩作:〈花〉,可得到此一論證。

  To explore Erdai’s works, we must understand the first layer first: the layout and format. Regarding Erdai’s art, Yu Huan-su once suggested: “The paintings showing the color and surface of a blooming flower are separate because of their passion. The lines and rhythms of an old tall tree would look green according to seasons and would become more spectacular. Therefore, the plants depicted by Zhao Erdai might show different courses of time in the same picture, presenting multiple changes in terms of time.” (“On Zhao Erdai’s Paintings,” World Journal, September 3, 1985). The lines, chronological order of the themes, and patterns of Erdai’s works have a sense of ambiguity resulting from simplification and internalization. The second layer is the contents of the painting: the topic of the exhibition is common flowers and butterflies in Taiwan and Penghu. The third layer is appreciation of the images created by the painter. Some derive from ancient iconological symbols while some are Zhao Erdai’s transference. Take his poem “Flower” for example:
 
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更新日期:2017-12-08